[comment]: # (Compile this presentation with the command below) [comment]: # (mdslides docs.md --include dist) [comment]: # (...or by running the Makefile with "make") ### To talk about anything 1. [**Find a good tone** & get informed consent](#/1) 2. [**Pick a claim** & clarify](#/2) 3. [**Ask for confidence** on a scale & calibrate](#/3) 4. [**Identify main reason**](#/4) 5. [**Explore & assess** epistemology & reliability](#/5) 6. [**End on aporia**, a question, a good tone](#/6) 7. [Consider & prepare](#/7) 8. [Learn more & share](#/8) \ Swipe ↓[about](#/0/1), →[proceed](#/1)
#### What is this? Imagine a topic you find difficult – *political*, *ideological*, *religious*, or maybe something *confusing* or *harmful*… \ Do you offer critique? Facts? Derision? A passionate plea to change their mind? \ Or do you just avoid the topic, and distance yourself? \ This is **a practical intro** for talking about **difficult topics**, using [Street Epistemology](#/0/2). \ Swipe ↓[more](#/0/2), →[proceed](#/1)
#### What is Street Epistemology (SE)? * A way, through civil conversation, to help one reflect on the quality of one's reasoning. * A way to have friendly dialogue about contentious topics. * A conversational toolbox for exploring ideas and beliefs. * A community that practices SE in a friendly environment. * A way to introduce [Epistemology](#/0/3) into everyday conversations. \ Swipe ↓[more](#/0/3), →[proceed](#/1)
#### What is Epistemology? The field of Philosophy focusing on *how* we know what we know. \ *«How do we know if something is true?»* \ *«Which methods and tools can we employ to determine this?»* \ By [Introducing SE](#/0/4) we try to bring epistemology from academia into everyday life. \ Swipe ↓[more](#/0/4), →[proceed](#/1)
#### What is Introducing.SE? * This is a practical introduction and overview of Street Epistemology (SE) * …a site for your phone, with useful tips for practicing SE. * …a way to [share SE](#/8/2) with anyone interested. \ Welcome to the Street Epistemology community! \ Swipe →[proceed](#/1)
### 1. Find a good tone & get informed consent * Establish **friendly rapport**, and maintain it. * Tell them your intentions, so they may consent. * Show you're interested & listening. * Show your curiosity; explore their ideas! * Share what you have in common. * Be respectful, be charitable \ Swipe ↓[more](#/1/1), →[proceed](#/2)
#### Politeness & intentions * Share [your intentions](#/7) upfront. * [Describe](#/0) or explain this method, and ask if they are open for exploring! * Recording? **Ask for consent**. * Offer to set a timer if they have limited time. \ Swipe ↓[more](#/1/2), →[proceed](#/2)
#### Patience & practice *Keeping a friendly tone is critical for success*.
* *Be patient* – You may need to have a few «soft» chats before proceeding with a contentious topic. * *Don't offer facts* (*topic rebuttal*), unless asked. Instead focus on the methods (*technique rebuttal*). * *Stay cool* – Avoiding *topic rebuttal* often requires practice. * *Practice* – [SE may at first be easier with strangers](#/8). \ Swipe ↓[more](#/1/3) →[proceed](#/2)
#### Adopt a learner's attitude * Be **Self-directed** – ask about what you find curious or confusing. * … **Open-minded** – there's always something to learn! * … **Single-minded** – focus on one topic until you grasp it. * and **Thorough** – don't just acknowledge, but try to *connect ideas*. \ *«Let's solve this mystery together.»* \ Swipe ↓[more](#/1/4) →[proceed](#/2)
#### Ask for more; Don't tell * ✅ *«Can you help me understand what you mean with…»* * ✅ *«Do I understand you correctly…»* * ✅ *«How do I explain to someone else…»* * ❌ *«Don't you think that…»* * ❌ *«Are you saying that…»* * ❌ *«How do you justify…»* \ Swipe →[proceed](#/2)
### 2. Pick a claim & clarify * *«Do you have a claim you want to explore?»* * *«... a topic you wish more people knew of?»* * *«Would you mind if we explored this claim together?»* * Aim or a **single topic**. * Phrase the topic in the form of a claim. * Ask if it's a good claim to explore together. \ *Don't rush when considering claims!*
#### Clarifying terms *«True»* vs. *«True for me»* vs. *«True for all.»*
* *«What do you mean when you say …?»* * In *your own* words, **repeat** what you hear. * Have them **confirm** if you understand correctly. * Identify, clarify & qualify confusing words. * Use *their* definitions. \ *Take notes!*
#### Normative vs. factual *«Normative should;
* «Is» claims are often easier to explore. * «Should» claims often require extra work. * Sometimes, asking «why» helps you find a factual claim to explore! \ *«If everybody changed to agreeing with your [normative claim], what would change in the world?»* \ *«…[how confident](#/3) are you this change would happen?»*
#### Good & bad claims * ✅ Claim is specific, clear & terse. * ✅ …Foundational or important for them. * ✅ …A positive phrase: *«I believe …»* * ❌ Not a negative phrase: ~~*«I don't believe …»*~~ * ⚠️ …Trivial or obvious. \ ⚠️ Stop if the claim is part of a [Safety Net](#/2/4)!
#### ⚠️ Stopping early A *Safety Net* is a belief that prevents an individual from doing harm to themselves or others. \ *«My Belief helped me become sober, and without it I would probably drink myself to death.»* \ SE is not always the right tool to use, and **SE is not for therapy**. Please do no harm!
### 3. Ask for confidence on a scale & calibrate * *«How **confident** are you X is true?»* 0–100% * *«Why is that the right number for you?»* * *«What would move you up just a bit?»* * *«What would move you down a little?»* * *«What could change your mind?»*
#### Exploring confidence * At 100%, *«Would anything increase your confidence even higher?»* * *«How would physical evidence change your confidence?»* * At 0%, *«What reasons do you think others have for being higher?»* * Above 0%, *«Why not lower?»* * Below 100%, *«Why not higher?»*
#### Pre-contemplative — or not? * 100% or 0% confidence may indicate they are pre-contemplative. * Maybe explore a «softer» topic first? * …Or ask them if they'd like to recalibrate their confidence! \ *«Can you imagine something that would make you even more confident?»* \ *«If there is still room to become more confident, what would you recalibrate your current confidence to?»*
#### Pre-contemplative II *«Is there anything you can think of, or learn, that would lower your confidence?»* \ *«Under what conditions would this claim be false?»* \ *«If you value evidence, what evidence would change your mind?»*
### 4. Identify main reason * **What reasons** did they use to arrive at their confidence? * Are there any other underlying reasons supporing this? * Try to find the most important source, experience or reason. \ *«What makes this particular reason a good one for you?»* \ *«If you could learn of a better reason to support this belief, what would it look like?»*
#### Exploring underlying reasons * *«If this reason was unavailable to you, would it change your confidence?»* * *«…if so, how would it change?»* * *«…and if not, **what else** is keeping you at your confidence level?»* * [Switching topic](#/2) or focusing on [another reason](#/4) is fine! \ *«Claim 2 seems to be important for your belief in claim 1. Would you mind if we explore it instead?»*
#### Many small, or a few large? * Take notes! * *A thousand small reasons, or a few big ones*? — explore to understand their background. * With many small, ask how each influences their confidence. * Is this influence additive (may surpass 100%) or multiplicative (may never reach 100%)? * Let them recalibrate their confidence as needed. \ *When you're done, restate & summarize their reason(s).*
### 5. Explore & assess epistemology & reliablility *Is our epistemology reliable? Let's assess.*
* *«How did you arrive at the reason?»* * *«What method was used to determine the soundness of this reason?»* * *«How can we determine if this method is reliable?»* \ *«If a method or a reason is unreliable, how does this affect our assessment?»*
#### The key goal of SE * Explore the reliability of methods used when forming a belief. * *How* questions are better than *Why* & *What.* * Embrace their pauses, allow them to think! * *«Let's go through the steps together.»* \ *«How can we be confident if our methods aren't reliable?»*
#### Exploring reliability I **The outsider test**
– *«Would someone using your reasons, but coming from a different starting point reach the same conclusion?»* **The consultant test**
– *«How would you evaluate this claim if it was **not** your own?»* **The double standard test**
– *«Am I judging other people’s reasoning by a standard I wouldn’t apply to myself?»*
#### Exploring reliability II **The conformity test**
– *«If other people no longer held this belief, to what extent would you still hold it?»* **The status quo bias test**
– *«If your current claim was not the status quo, would you still actively choose it?»* **The selective skeptic test**
– *«If the same reasoning supported a different or opposing conclusion, how credible would you judge it to be?»*
#### Recognizing unreliable reasons * ❌ [Informal fallacies](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies#Informal_fallacies), like *Appeals to authority*, *ignorance* or *tradition.* * ❌ [Cognitive biases](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias#List_of_biases), like *Confirmation bias*, *Availability heuristic* and *Motivated reasoning.* * ❌ News sources are [biased or misleading](https://adfontesmedia.com/interactive-media-bias-chart/). * ❌ News sources that [fail fact checks](https://mediabiasfactcheck.com/). * ❌ Academic publications that don't pass [the C.R.A.A.P. test](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRAAP_test). \ *«If a text only offers thoughts I agree with, how can I know it is truthful?»*
### 6. End on aporia, a question, a good tone * The best endings offer food for thought! * Try to end on a positive note, with *wonder* or *[aporia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aporia)*. * Success? – You have it when **both are happy** to have had the conversation. * If you can, offer to continue the chat later. * Maybe offer them a printed [Introducing.SE card](dist/media/introducing-se-card-2022-09-06.pdf)?
#### Reasons to return Some conversations may require several sessions. \ Give your conversation partner reasons to look forward to them! \ *«That was a good question. You're making me think!»*
### 7. Consider & prepare *Before engaging in SE, decide for yourself…*
* What's your goal? To learn, empathize or help them change their mind? * Are you also open to learn and change your own mind? * Decide, and consider sharing your intentions upfront. * As you proceed, expect your goals and intentions to show.
#### Personal preparations * Expect them to dislike *scripted* conversations. * …or «interviewing». * …or leading questions. * …or overt «messaging». * …or being embarrassed. * …or made to feel cornered. \ *— Listen actively and without presumption.*
#### Practical preparations *Depending on your situation, you may also…*
* Bring something to take notes with. * Bring a friend! Let them listen in without participating, so they later can offer feedback. * Optionally, bring an audio recorder for your own reviewing or for sharing. * Optionally, bring a timer. * Print some [cards](dist/media/introducing-se-card-2022-07-05.pdf) to give away!
### 8. Learn more & share * Practice, learn and improve with a friendly community! * Find SE practitioners on [Discord](https://discord.gg/sKap3zM) & [elsewhere](https://streetepistemology.com/community). * SE videos, blogs, books, tutorials and more on [streetepistemology.com](https://streetepistemology.com/). * Share your experiences with the Street Epistemology community, so we can improve together! * …And when you meet someone that may benefit from SE, [share this site](#/8/2)!
### Other SE resources Looking for another take on Street Epistemology?
* Check out the [Street Epistemology Basics](https://streetepistemology.com/blog/street-epistemology-the-basics). * Prefer videos? Check out LiveWell.Coach's [SE Tutorial](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bKr_phSSzes&list=PLEBCyAR7MPxk6fRihp-Op9UN2Tw_qI6FJ) on YouTube. * Also, there's an awesome [SE poster](https://drive.google.com/file/d/1QNgN7HyzWE2AYm5VxaaRy9lqKQ6Y-zUm/view?usp=sharing)!
[![Street Epistemology Logo](dist/media/street-epistemology-logo.png)](https://streetepistemology.com) ###### Street Epistemology [![QR Code image to introducing.se](dist/media/to-this-site-qr.png)](https://introducing.se) ###### Introducing.SE
### About this site
& content, by
Salve J. Nilsen
& others, is licensed
#### 🚧 Contribute 🚧 This site is a work in progress. Please help us improve it! \ Source code, content, attributions and issue tracker is on [Github](https://github.com/sjn/introducing-se/). \ [🔙 *to start*](#)