[comment]: # (Compile this presentation with the command below) [comment]: # (mdslides docs.md --include dist) [comment]: # (...or by running the Makefile with "make") ### How to explore ideas & beliefs 0. [Consider intentions](#/1) 1. [Establish rapport & informed consent](#/2) 2. [Find & clarify claim](#/3) 3. [Ask for & calibrate scaled confidence](#/4) 4. [Identify main reason](#/5) 5. [Explore & assess epistemology](#/6) 6. [End on a high note, with a good question](#/7) 7. [Share & collaborate](#/8) \ *Swipe ↓about, →continue*
#### What is Street Epistemology (SE)? * A way to help us have better talks about hard topics. * A conversational toolbox for exploring ideas and beliefs. * A step towards learning collaborative thinking. * A community that practices SE in a friendly environment. * Check out the [Street Epistemology Basics](https://streetepistemology.com/blog/street-epistemology-the-basics)! \ Swipe ↓more, →continue
#### What is Epistemology? The field of Philosophy focusing on *how* we know what we know.
* *«How do we know if something is true?»* * *«Which methods and tools can we employ to determine this?»* \ With SE we try to bring this out of academia and into everyday life. \ Swipe ↓more, →continue
#### What is Introducing.SE? * It's a short introduction and overview of Street Epistemology (SE). * … a reminder of useful tips when practicing SE. * … a tool to [share](#/8) with anyone interested. \ Swipe →continue
### 0. Consider intentions * Decide if you want to learn, empathize or help them change their mind. * Are you also open to changing your own mind? * Your goals and intentions matter! \ Swipe ↓more, →continue
#### Expect from yourself * Prepare to explore *how* they know what they know. * When in doubt, focus on *technique* instead of *topic*. * Listen without presumption, and attempt to learn. * This guide is just a simple introduction. There's [more to learn](#/8/1)! \ *«Be the open mind you want to encounter!»* — Abstract Activist
#### Expect from them * They'll dislike *scripted* conversations. * … or «interviewing». * … or leading questions. * … or being embarrassed. * … or made to feel cornered. * Triumphing & *gotcha* moments are counterproductive!
#### Practical preparations * Bring something to take notes with. * Bring a friend! Let them listen without participation. * Optionally, bring an audio recorder for your own use or for sharing. * Optionally, bring a timer.
### 1. Establish rapport & informed consent * Establish a **friendly tone** & maintain it. * Show you're interested & listening. * Show your curiosity; explore their ideas! * Share what you have in common.
#### Politeness & intentions * Share [your intentions](#/1) upfront. * [Describe](#/0) or explain this method, and ask if they are open for this! * Recording? **Ask for consent**. * Offer to set a timer if they have limited time.
#### Patience & practice *Keeping a friendly tone is critical for success*.
* *Be patient* – You may have to have several easy chats before proceeding to harder topics. * *Don't offer facts* (*topic rebuttal*), unless asked. * *Stay cool* – Avoiding *topic rebuttal* may require practice! * *Practice* – [SE may at first be easier with strangers](#/8).
#### Adopt a learner's attitude *«I want to understand.»*
* Self-directed – ask about what you find curious or confusing. * Open-minded – there's always something to learn! * Single-minded – focus on one topic until you grasp it. * Thorough – don't just acknowledge, but try to *connect* ideas.
#### Ask, don't tell * ✅ *«Can you help me understand what you mean with …»* * ✅ *«Do I understand you correctly …»* * ✅ *«How do I explain to someone else …»* * ❌ *«Don't you think that …»* * ❌ *«Are you saying that …»* * ❌ *«How do you justify …»*
### 2. Find & clarify claim * *«Do you have a claim you want to explore?»* * *«... a topic you wish more people knew about?»* * *«Would you mind if we explored this claim together?»* * Aim to find a **single topic**. * Phrase the topic in the form of a claim. * Ask if it's a good claim to explore together. \ Don't rush when considering claims!
#### Clarifying terms *«True»* vs. *«True for me»* vs. *«True for all.»*
* *«What do you mean when you say …?»* * In your own words, **repeat** what you hear. * **Confirm** if you understand correctly. * Identify, clarify & qualify words that are confusing. * Use *their* definitions. \ Take notes!
#### Good & bad claims * ✅ Claim is specific & clear. * ✅ … Foundational or important. * ✅ *«I believe …»* * ❌ *«I don't believe …»* * ⚠️ … Trivial or obvious. * ⚠️ Stop if the claim supports a [Safety Net](#/3/2)!
#### Stopping early A *Safety Net* is a belief that prevents an individual from doing harm to themselves or others. \ *«My Belief helped me become sober, and without it I would probably drink myself to death.»* \ SE is not always the right tool to use, and it is **not therapy**. Please do no harm!
### 3. Ask for & calibrate scaled confidence * *«How **confident** are you X is true?»* 0–100% * *«What would move you up just a bit?»* * *«What would move you down?»* * *«What could change your mind?»*
#### Exploring confidence * At 100%, *«Would anything increase your confidence even higher?»* * *«How would physical evidence change your confidence?»* * At 0%, *«What reasons do you think others have for being higher?»* * Above 0%, *«Why not lower?»* * Below 100%, *«Why not higher?»*
#### Pre-contemplative or not? * 100% or 0% confidence may indicate they are pre-contemplative – not yet open to explore. * *«If there is room to become more confident, what does this say about your current confidence?»*
### 4. Identify main reason * **What reasons** did they use to arrive at their belief? * Assess the reliability of these reasons. * What can we ask to determine a reason is sound? * If our methods are unreliable, would the assessment change?
#### Finding underlying reasons * *«If this reason was unavailable to you, would it change your confidence?»* * *«… if so, how would it change?»* * *«… and if not, **what else** is keeping you at your confidence level?»* * [Switching topic](#/3) is fine! \ *«Claim 2 seems to be important for your belief in claim 1. Would you mind if we explore it instead?»*
### 5. Explore & assess epistemology * Assess the reliability of these reasons. * What can we do to determine a reason is sound? * If our methods are unreliable, would the assessment change?
#### The key goal of SE * Explore the reliability of methods used when forming a belief. * *How* questions are better than *Why* & *What.* * Embrace their pauses, allow them to think! * *«Let's go through the steps together.»* * *«How can we be confident if our methods aren't reliable?»*
#### Explore reliability I **The outsider test** – *«Would someone using your reasons, but coming from a different starting point reach the same conclusion?»* **The consultant test** – *«How would you evaluate this situation if it was **not** your own situation?»* **The double standard test** – *«Am I judging other people’s reasoning by a standard I wouldn’t apply to myself?»*
#### Explore reliability II **The conformity test** – *«If other people no longer held this view, to what extent would you still hold it?»* **The status quo bias test** – *«If your current situation was not the status quo, would you still actively choose it?»* **The selective skeptic test** – *«If the same reasoning supported a different conclusion, how credible would you judge it to be?»*
#### Recognizing bad reasons * ❌ [Informal fallacies](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_fallacies#Informal_fallacies), like *Appeals to authority*, *ignorance* or *tradition.* * ❌ [Cognitive biases](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cognitive_bias#List_of_biases), like *Confirmation bias*, *Availability heuristic* and *Motivated reasoning.* * ❌ Sources don't pass [the C.R.A.A.P. test](https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/CRAAP_test). \ *«If a text only offers thoughts I agree with, how can I know it is truthful?»*
### 6. End on a high note, with a good question * The best endings offer food for thought! * Try to end on a positive note, with *wonder* or *[aporia](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aporia)*. * Success? – You have it when **both are happy** to have had the conversation. * If you can, offer to continue the chat later. * Maybe give them a printed [Introducing.SE card](dist/media/introducing-se-card-2022-01.pdf)? \ [🔙 *to start*](#)
#### Reasons to return Some conversations may require several sessions. Give them a reason to have them! \ *«That was a good question. You're making me think!»*
### 7. Share & collaborate * [Share](#/8/1) your experiences with others in the Street Epistemology communities! * Join the SE community. You can find it on [Discord](https://discord.gg/sKap3zM) and [elsewhere](https://streetepistemology.com/community). * Practice SE in a friendly environment! * Find SE videos, blogs, tutorials, books and other resources on [streetepistemology.com](https://streetepistemology.com/). * Want some more explanations? Check the [Street Epistemology Basics](https://streetepistemology.com/blog/street-epistemology-the-basics) page.
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